Four standards for determination of the fair use exemption:

  • Purpose of use: Using selected parts of copyrighted works for specific educational purpose (spontaneously and temporarily)

  • Nature of work: Copying paragraphs – fair use likely to apply, copying a chapter – fair use may be questionable

  • Proportion / extent of material used: Duplicating excerpts that are short in relation to the entire documents – likely to apply

  • The effect on marketability: If no reduction in sales because of your copying – likely to apply